“Learning for an unknown future has to be a learning understood neither in terms of knowledge or skills but of human qualities and dispositions. Learning for an unknown future calls, in short, for an ontological turn.” (Barnett, 2012, p. 65)Barnett, R. (2012). Learning for an unknown future. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(1), 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2012.642841
Learning designs should focus upon what the learner does (Building graduate Capabilities) and the Teacher as designer of real world learning environments (Authentic Learning) that build students capacity to navigate the unknown and become self-determined learners.
Authentic learning focuses upon exploring (often complex) real world problems or practice and highlights the importance of designing learning experiences that involve interdisciplinary collaboration. All disciplines can benefit from authentic collaboration. Our graduates need the skills and capabilities to work in diverse teams to explore and develop creative approaches to the complex problems and issues that they will face in the workplace and the wider community within an increasingly unknown future. Most professions involve some form of teamwork and collaboration across a variety of discipline and cultural boundaries, and therefore this is a key graduate capability identified by employers.
This BootCamp will explore some of the foundational principles that can inform authentic learning design, illustrated by examples of TEL learning designs using mobile learning, and interdisciplinary curriculum design to facilitate building learner agency and self-determined capabilities.
Traxler, J. (2021). A Critical Review of Mobile Learning: Phoenix, Fossil, Zombie or …..? Education Sciences, 11(9), 525. https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7102/11/9/525
Cook, J., & Santos, P. (2016). Three Phases of Mobile Learning State of the Art and Case of Mobile Help Seeking Tool for the Health Care Sector. In D. Churchill, J. Lu, T. K. F. Chiu, & B. Fox (Eds.), Mobile Learning Design (pp. 315-333). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0027-0_19
- Focus upon the DEVICE
- Focus upon LEARNING OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM
- Focus upon the MOBILITY of the LEARNER
- Focus on new patterns of connected social learning and work-based practices.
- Focus on designing for ‘m-learning’ at scale.
- Focus on the boundaries of learning that the ‘m’ in m-learning forces us to explore.
Kearney, M., Burden, K., & Schuck, S. (2020). Differentiating Mobile Learning Frameworks. In Theorising and Implementing Mobile Learning: Using the iPAC Framework to Inform Research and Teaching Practice (pp. 101-114). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8277-6_8
This workshop will explore analysing mobile learning designs through the lens of Activity Theory (AT) (Engeström, 2001) and a matrix of two learning design frameworks: the Design for Transformative Mobile Learning framework (Cochrane et al., 2017) and the Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy continuum (Luckin et al., 2010). We refer to this matrix as the DTML-PAH Matrix and introduce the matrix in this workshop as a framework for designing transformative mobile learning experiences to facilitate learner agency.
While AT is seen as useful for analysing relational aspects of mobile learning environments it has been criticised for being difficult for mobile learning practitioners to translate this analysis into practice (Pachler et al., 2010).
The Design for Transformative Mobile Learning framework (Cochrane et al., 2017) provides a pragmatic mobile learning design framework. The framework has been iteratively developed from a variety of higher education contexts: (Cochrane, 2020; Cochrane & Antonczak, 2014, 2015; Cochrane et al., 2014; Cochrane & Narayan, 2017). Kearney, Burden and Schuck (2020a) summarise the focus and importance of the Design for Transformative Mobile Learning framework:
The Design for Transformative Mobile Learning framework, which, as the title makes clear, is focused explicitly on a radical, transformative agenda for education that goes far beyond making learning more efficient… In order for these transformations to occur, the Design for Transformative Mobile Learning framework advocates a shift from teacher-directed to student-directed pedagogies and frames m-learning as a context for the construction of authentic learning communities.(Kearney et al., 2020a, p. 109)
The Design for Transformative Mobile Learning Framework utilises eight dimensions that draw upon the key affordances of mobile learning that enable learner agency.
- Pedagogical Focus: Enabling a shift from teacher-directed pedagogies towards self-determined learning (P-A-H continuum)
- Creativity: Framing Creativity as the development of new ideas (Reinitiation) rather than reproduction
- SAMR: Redefining Praxis rather than simply Substitution of current practice
- Cognition: Transforming understanding from knowledge acquisition towards transforming world views
- Locus of Control: Reconceptualising learning environments to facilitate learner agency
- Knowledge Production: Moving beyond content delivery to learner-generated content and contexts
- Self Perception: Building authentic learning communities
- Ontological Shift: Reimagining learning as what the learner does
Developing learner agency in educational designs are focused upon developing learners’ capacity to navigate the unknown (Blaschke & Hase, 2019; Hase & Blaschke, 2021). Transformative mobile learning designs implement strategies to facilitate a move from a focus upon teacher-directed content (Pedagogy) towards student-determined learning or Heutagogy (Blaschke & Hase, 2019; Hase & Kenyon, 2001, 2007; Moore, 2020). This involves applying the Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy (PAH) continuum to mobile learning design (Blaschke, 2012; Kearney et al., 2020b; Luckin et al., 2010) to facilitate learner agency. When put into a matrix, with DTML, PAH provides a mapping of how learners may transition into increasing self-regulation and learner-agency across the eight mobile learning relevant areas or dimensions.
- Paramedic clinical education in New Zealand (Aiello, 2021)
- Immersive virtual reality for social learning in Japan (Alizadeh, 2021)
- Architecture, engineering and construction site visits in Australia (Birt, 2020)
- Hybrid Model United Nations in Japan (Cowie, 2021)
- Virtual physiotherapy learning and assessment in New Zealand (Stretton, 2021)
- Designing for online, blended and synchronous learning for computing students in Australia (Worthington,2021)
- Collaborative mobile learning in environmental science in Australia and Hong Kong (Bone, 2021).
Pre reading includes:
Cochrane, T., Narayan, V., Aiello, S., Alizadeh, M., Birt, J., Bone, E., Cowie, N., Cowling, M., Deneen, C., Goldacre, P., Sinfield, D., Stretton, T., & Worthington, T. (2022). Analysing Mobile Learning Designs: A Framework for Transforming Learning Post COVID. Australasia Journal of Educational Technology (AJET), Special Issue: Achieving Lasting Education in the New Digital Learning World, Accepted. (Attached)
Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., Guinibert, M., Mulrennan, D., Rive, V., & Withell, A. (2017). A Framework for Designing Transformative Mobile Learning. In A. Murphy, H. Farley, L. Dyson, & H. Jones (Eds.), Mobile Learning in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Harnessing Trends and Challenging Orthodoxies (pp. 25-43). Springer International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4944-6_2 (attached)
Cochrane, T., & Sinfield, D. (2022, 4-7 December). A Cultural Mapping of the Design for Transformative Mobile Learning Framework to Facilitate Learner Agency [Poster]. ASCILITE 2022: 39th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, University of Sydney. https://www.2022conference.ascilite.org
Using the DTML Framework as either a mobile learning analysis tool or as a mobile learning design tool.
Participants will need a copy of the attached Case Study Template, Excel Spreadsheet and Poster for evaluating or designing a course/case study.
Download the DTMLcasestudy 1 page Template (Word Doc) and the DTMLspreadsheet (Excel file).
Choose either an existing mobile learning project to analyse OR define a new mobile learning project that you would like to design using the DTML Framework and Activity Theory. Write a short 300 summary of your project.
Map your project to the Activity Theory template diagram – what are the key enablers or barriers to achieving your learning objectives from the project?
Where does your project sit on each of the DTML Framework dimension levels? How do your learning objectives , activities, and assessments match each of the 8 dimensions levels of learner agency? Rate your project across all 8 dimensions by choosing a score in the DTML spreadsheet – the spreadsheet will then automatically create a ‘Spider Diagram’ mapping that you can ‘Save as an image’ and copy and paste into the DTML case study template as a visual mapping of your project against the DTML Framework.
How might you change/redesign your project learning objectives , activities, and assessments to scaffold higher levels of learner agency in each dimension?
Share your completed Case Study Template in the MS Teams channel for the workshop and provide feedback on each teams projects mapping using the DTML Framework.
Supplementary Design Tools:
Design Principles for Heutagogic Learning
Narayan, V., Herrington, J., & Cochrane, T. (2019). Design principles for heutagogic learning: Implementing student-determined learning with mobile and social media tools. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET), 35(3), 86-101. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3941
DBR/SoTEL PADLET Template for curriculum design
Cochrane, T. (2022). A Design-Based Research Framework to Guide Curriculum Design. University of Melbourne. https://doi.org/10.26188/61efc1d462de2
Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning [Research Article]. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1), 56-71. http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076
Blaschke, L. M., & Hase, S. (2019). Heutagogy and digital media networks: Setting students on the path to lifelong learning. Pacific Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 1(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.24135/pjtel.v1i1.1
Cochrane, T. (2020). Designing authentic mobile learning. University of Melbourne. https://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/3398201/designing-authentic-mobile-learning_final.pdf
Cochrane, T., & Antonczak, L. (2014). Implementing a Mobile Social Media Framework for Designing Creative Pedagogies. Social Sciences, 3(3), 359-377. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/socsci3030359
Cochrane, T., & Antonczak, L. (2015). Designing Creative Learning Environments. Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal – IxD&A, N.24, 125-144. http://www.mifav.uniroma2.it/inevent/events/idea2010/index.php?s=10&a=11&link=ToC_24_P&link=24_8_abstract
Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., & Guinibert, M. (2014, 24-26 November). Designing Transformative Learning Environments Rhetoric and Reality: Critical perspectives on educational technology, the 31st Ascilite Conference, Otago University, Dunedin. https://www.ascilite.org/conferences/dunedin2014/files/fullpapers/53-Cochrane.pdf
Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., Guinibert, M., Mulrennan, D., Rive, V., & Withell, A. (2017). A Framework for Designing Transformative Mobile Learning. In A. Murphy, H. Farley, L. Dyson, & H. Jones (Eds.), Mobile Learning in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Harnessing Trends and Challenging Orthodoxies (pp. 25-43). Springer International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4944-6_2
Cochrane, T., & Narayan, V. (2017). Design Considerations for Mobile Learning. In C. Reigeluth, B. J. Beatty, & R. Myers (Eds.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models (Vol. 4, pp. 385-414). Routledge. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315795478
Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive Learning at Work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080020028747
Hase, S., & Blaschke, L. M. (Eds.). (2021). Unleashing the Power of Learner Agency. EdTech Books. https://edtechbooks.org/up/.
Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2001). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. ultiBASE Articles(December), 1-10. http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/pr/Heutagogy.html
Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2007). Heutagogy: a child of complexity theory. Complicity: an International Journal of Complexity and Education, 4(1), 111-118. https://doi.org/10.29173/cmplct8766
Kearney, M., Burden, K., & Schuck, S. (2020a). Differentiating Mobile Learning Frameworks. In Theorising and Implementing Mobile Learning: Using the iPAC Framework to Inform Research and Teaching Practice (pp. 101-114). Springer Singapore.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8277-6_8
Kearney, M., Burden, K., & Schuck, S. (2020b). Theorising and Implementing Mobile Learning. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8277-6
Luckin, R., Clark, W., Garnett, F., Whitworth, A., Akass, J., Cook, J., Day, P., Ecclesfield, N., Hamilton, T., & Robertson, J. (2010). Learner-Generated Contexts: A Framework to Support the Effective Use of Technology for Learning. In M. Lee & C. McLoughlin (Eds.), Web 2.0-Based E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching (pp. 70-84). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60566-294-7.ch004
Moore, R. L. (2020). Developing lifelong learning with heutagogy: contexts, critiques, and challenges. Distance Education, 41(3), 381-401. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1766949
Pachler, N., Bachmair, B., & Cook, J. (2010). Mobile learning: Structures, agency, practices. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0585-7